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Forest Concepts Awarded USDA SBIR Contract to Improve Biomass Drying Efficiency

2015.August

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Forest Concepts, LLC was notified today that it has been awarded an SBIR research contract from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The two-year $499,997 contract will support development of advanced model-predictive control systems for biomass dryers used in the biofuel and bioproducts supply chain.

Forest Concepts Awarded USDA SBIR Contract to Improve Biomass Drying Efficiency

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August 3, 2015 - Auburn, WA - Forest Concepts, LLC was notified today that it has been awarded an SBIR research contract from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The two-year $499,997 contract will support development of advanced model-predictive control systems for biomass dryers used in the biofuel and bioproducts supply chain. Innovations and technologies resulting from this project can immediately be implemented in current wood pellet and solid biofuel production facilities as well as future second generation thermochemical biorefinery facilities producing liquid transportation fuels and chemicals.

Forest Concepts Issued US Patent for METHOD OF BALING SWITCHGRASS OR MISCANTHUS AT OPTIMUM HIGHWAY TRANSPORT DENSITIES

2013.January

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Today, the U.S. Patent Office issued Patent Number 8,359,974 to Forest Concepts, LLC. This patent provides for compacting switchgrass or miscanthus into rectangular bales, at compression pressures between 4 psi and 32 psi, to achieve optimum highway transport densities, taking into consideration initial moisture content, expected dry-down period, and mode of transportation.

Switchgrass and other tall perennial grasses are expected to become a core element of our nation's strategy to replace imported oil and natural gas with renewable resources, but the large, stiff stems of this biomass type has been problematic to economically harvest using legacy technology.

Forest Concepts Issued US Patent for METHOD OF BALING SWITCHGRASS OR MISCANTHUS AT OPTIMUM HIGHWAY TRANSPORT DENSITIES

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Today, the U.S. Patent Office issued Patent Number 8,359,974 to Forest Concepts, LLC. This patent provides for compacting switchgrass or miscanthus into rectangular bales, at compression pressures between 4 psi and 32 psi, to achieve optimum highway transport densities, taking into consideration initial moisture content, expected drydown period, and mode of transportation.

Switchgrass and other tall perennial grasses are expected to become a core element of our nation's strategy to replace imported oil and natural gas with renewable resources, but the large, stiff stems of this biomass type has been problematic to economically harvest using legacy technology.

With USDA support, Forest Concept engineers have elucidated the three rheological properties of switchgrass-like materials - platen pressure v. bale density, Poisson's ratio effect on baling chamber sidewall strength, and coefficient of friction during baling and bale discharge - requisite to predictably and reproducibly bale switchgrass biomass at preselected optimum highway densities while minimizing fossil fuel consumption during baling, handling and transport. The underlying research was supported by the NIFA Small Business Innovation Research program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This patent adds to Forest Concepts' growing portfolio of biomass baling patents. Additional U.S. and international patent applications are pending.

Jim Dooley, co-founder and CTO, said "Understanding the engineerable properties of switchgrass under compression enables economies throughout the biomass supply chain, from field to comminution site where our recently announced Crumbler™ machinery can efficiently cross-grain shear the stems or billets into precision feedstock particles at field moisture content."

Dr. James Dooley co-authors two of the three articles featured on the cover of the January 2013 issue of Biofuels

2013.January

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Dr. James Dooley, Chief Technology Officer of Forest Concepts, was the co-author of two of the three articles featured on the cover of the January 2013 issue of Biofuels, a leading peer-reviewed science and engineering journal published in the U.K. The special focus issue on advanced feedstocks for advanced biofuels included ten articles and manuscripts. Dooley co-authored with Drs. Kaushlendra Singh and Shahab Sokhansanj an editorial about how scale matters to the utilization of woody biomass. The other cover story was an original research manuscript authored by Forest Concepts' engineers Dave Lanning, Chris Lanning, and Jim Dooley. The article titled "Woody biomass size reduction with selective material orientation" details the development of what is now known as the Forest Concepts Crumbles® technology. The work was partially funded by US Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs to apply the principles of structural biology to minimize energy consumed during comminution of woody biomass into small biofuel feedstock particles. The low energy comminution was achieved by careful understanding of natural modes of failure within wood materials, minimizing energy-intensive cross-grain shearing, processing at high moisture content, and only manipulating each face of the resulting particles only once. Production equipment based on the technology has been demonstrated to consume a fraction of the energy used by hammer mills.

The entire issue is available online at http://www.future-science.com/toc/bfs/4/1

Dr. James Dooley co-authors two of the three articles featured on the cover of the January 2013 issue of Biofuels

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Dr. James Dooley, Chief Technology Officer of Forest Concepts, was the co-author of two of the three articles featured on the cover of the January 2013 issue of Biofuels, a leading peer-reviewed science and engineering journal published in the U.K. The special focus issue on advanced feedstocks for advanced biofuels included ten articles and manuscripts. Dooley co-authored with Drs. Kaushlendra Singh and Shahab Sokhansanj an editorial about how scale matters to the utilization of woody biomass. The other cover story was an original research manuscript authored by Forest Concepts' engineers Dave Lanning, Chris Lanning, and Jim Dooley. The article titled "Woody biomass size reduction with selective material orientation" details the development of what is now known as the Forest Concepts Crumbles ® technology. The work was partially funded by US Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs to apply the principles of structural biology to minimize energy consumed during comminution of woody biomass into small biofuel feedstock particles. The low energy comminution was achieved by careful understanding of natural modes of failure within wood materials, minimizing energy-intensive cross-grain shearing, processing at high moisture content, and only manipulating each face of the resulting particles only once. Production equipment based on the technology has been demonstrated to consume a fraction of the energy used by hammer mills.

The entire issue is available online at http://www.future-science.com/toc/bfs/4/1

Forest Concepts Licenses WoodStraw® Production from Beetle-Kill Trees to Colorado Company

2012.June

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Forest Concepts, LLC granted a license today to Mountain Pine Manufacturing, Inc., of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the exclusive right to manufacture, distribute and sell Engineered Wood-based Mulch within a five state area. Mountain Pine Manufacturing will be producing the engineered mulch from the tremendous supply of Beetle-Kill Pine in the area, and in doing so will be making an environmentally friendly use of the trees while creating jobs in Routt County.

Forest Concepts Licenses WoodStraw® Production from Beetle-Kill Trees to Colorado Company

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Forest Concepts, LLC, a small business in Auburn, Washington granted a license today to Mountain Pine Manufacturing, Inc., of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the exclusive right to manufacture, distribute and sell Engineered Wood-based Mulch within a five state area. Mountain Pine Manufacturing will be producing the engineered mulch from the tremendous supply of Beetle-Kill Pine in the area, and in doing so will be making an environmentally friendly use of the trees while creating jobs in Routt County.

Trent Jones, President of Mountain Pine Manufacturing, said, "It makes perfect sense to convert beetle-kill trees into an engineered mulch that will promote regeneration of new living trees. WoodStraw® historically produced from Douglas Fir has already been used on projects in Colorado such as the Fourmile Canyon Fire near Boulder. The only difference between the WoodStraw® provided by Forest Concepts in past years, and Mountain Pine Manufacturing's new engineered mulch is that it is now available from Beetle-Kill Pine.We are extremely excited about working with Forest Concepts to bring new industry to Steamboat Springs, and to help answer Colorado's Beetle-Kill epidemic."

Forest Concepts developed the engineered wood-based mulch with assistance from the USDA SBIR Program and the Forest Service, which they trademarked WoodStraw®. Forest Concepts owns US patent 6,729,068, ENGINEERED WOOD-BASED MULCH PRODUCT, which expires on August 21, 2022. Since June 2006 at their facility near Seattle, Forest Concepts has produced more than 14,000 tons of WoodStraw® used on projects in the forest service, BLM, national parks, state, county and city DOTs and parks. WoodStraw® is approved for use by the Washington State Department of Ecology, WS DOT, OR DOT and ID DOT and has been used on more than 30 post-wildfire projects to protect critical areas from erosion. About WoodStraw® Engineered Wood-based Mulch:

Our patented WoodStraw® ECM is manufactured (recycled) from "green" industrial grade veneer and has been proven to be:

- An effective water & wind erosion control

- 100% weed and seed-free

- Chemical and herbicide free

- Resistant to high winds

- Minimizes dust-PM10 (USFS recent publication)

- Long lasting for 4 or more years

- Does not require staples or tackifiers

- Promotes revegetation (BLM 3 year report)

- Easily applied by hand, blower or helicopter

- Durable-can be walked or driven on

- Successful use on slopes up to 70%

- Animals will not eat it

- Attractive and ecologically preferable

For more information on WoodStraw® visit www.woodstraw.com.

Forest Concepts Awarded USDOE SBIR Phase I to Improve Feedstock Drying to Intensify Conversion Processes

Forest Concepts was notified that it was awarded a $150,000 SBIR research grant in the highly competitive DOE program. When Forest Concepts is successful in the ten-month long research project, it will qualify for up to an additional $1 million of funding over two years to complete the development effort.The project, Process Intensification through Improved Dryer Engineering Data and Design, combines our ongoing low-energy biomass feedstock comminution engineering program with new advanced drying physics and science work that will reduce the capital and operating costs of biofuels facilities using woody and herbaceous biomass as their feedstocks.

Forest Concepts Awarded USDOE SBIR Phase I to Improve Feedstock Drying to Intensify Conversion Processes

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Forest Concepts, LLC, a small business in Auburn, Washington was notified today that it was awarded an SBIR research grant in the highly competitive $11 million DOE program announced by U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman. Innovative research and technology grants up to $150,000 were given to approximately 70 small businesses out of a total of 764 applicants. If Forest Concepts is successful in the $150,000 SBIR ten-month long research project, it will qualify for up to an additional $1 million of funding over two years to complete the development effort.

The proposal, Process Intensification through Improved Dryer Engineering Data and Design, combines our ongoing low-energy biomass feedstock comminution engineering program with new advanced drying physics and science work that will reduce the capital and operating costs of biofuels facilities using woody and herbaceous biomass as their feedstocks. The technologies to be developed under this proposal will achieve process intensification by combining Forest Concepts' energy efficient comminution of high moisture fibrous biomass to produce small, uniform particles with optimal design of low-temperature dryers. In addition to the already demonstrated 50% reduction in comminution energy for Forest Concepts' patented Crumbles® precision feedstock technology, process intensification can be achieved when, a) the gross drying energy relative to current technology dryers are reduced by 25% through better engineering design data, and b) the capital and footprint of a dryer might be reduced by 30%.

Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels and bioproducts is a core element of our nation's strategy to replace imported oil with renewable domestic resources. Thermochemical conversion processes typically require very dry feedstocks thus require an expensive drying process step. Dryer design data for grains and many industrial materials are known, but prior experiments at our facility have demonstrated that biomass feedstocks, particularly woody biomass, are sufficiently unique from agricultural commodities that the appropriate design data does not exist or is not applicable to the design of low-temperature dryers for such feedstocks. The technologies resulting from this project can be implemented today at solid biofuel pellet facilities to reduce capital and operating costs; and at second generation liquid transportation fuel producers as commercial scale facilities are built.

Forest Concepts Completes USDA SBIR to Separate High Value White Wood from Hog Fuel

2011.December

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Forest Concepts has completed its USDA NIFA Small Business Innovative Research funded chipped and shredded biomass reprocessing project. The technologies developed during this project enables forest products industry professionals to reprocess low quality feedstocks into higher quality feedstocks to meet their wood fiber needs. See the final report out presentation for more details.

Forest Concepts Completes USDA SBIR to Separate High Value White Wood from Hog Fuel

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Forest Concepts has completed its USDA NIFA Small Business Innovative Research funded chipped and shredded biomass reprocessing project. The technologies developed during this project enables forest products industry professionals to reprocess low quality feedstocks into higher quality feedstocks to meet their wood fiber needs. See the final report out presentation for more details.

Forest Concepts' Crumbles® Precision Feedstock Manufacturing Process Featured at DOE Workshop and Webinar

2011.September

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Chief Technology Office Jim Dooley was among a select few non-DOE employees featured in a two-day workshop on biomass feedstock preprocessing at the Idaho National Laboratory August 23-24, 2011 and on a globally broadcast webinar "Transforming Biomass into Feedstock" on August 30, 2011. Dr. Dooley's presentation covered our novel approach to production of woody biomass feedstock particles that have optimal geometry and surface characteristics for biochemical and thermochemical conversion to second generation liquid transportation fuels. The Forest Concepts methods include selective orientation of biomass to enable independent shearing parallel to grain and cross-grain, thus minimizing the comminution energy to a fraction of that required for grinding with hammer and knife mills.

Forest Concepts' Crumbles® Precision Feedstock Manufacturing Process Featured at DOE Workshop and Webinar

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Chief Technology Office Jim Dooley was among a select few non- DOE employees featured in a two-day workshop on biomass feedstock preprocessing at the Idaho National Laboratory August 23-24, 2011 and on a globally broadcast webinar "Transforming Biomass into Feedstock" on August 30, 2011. Dr. Dooley's presentation covered our novel approach to production of woody biomass feedstock particles that have optimal geometry and surface characteristics for biochemical and thermochemical conversion to second generation liquid transportation fuels. The Forest Concepts methods include selective orientation of biomass to enable independent shearing parallel to grain and cross-grain, thus minimizing the comminution energy to a fraction of that required for grinding with hammer and knife mills.

Forest Concepts Granted 2 Core U.S. Patents for Biomass Baling Systems

2011.August

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Forest Concepts received notice from the U.S. Patent Office of the issuance of key biomass baling patents. Engineers at Forest Concepts applied sound science to discover and document three important rheological properties of woody biomass and tall grass biomass. Knowledge of these three properties enables the design and construction of new balers that can predictably and reproducibly bale both materials at preselected optimum transportation densities while minimizing fossil fuel consumption during baling, handling and transport. The three rheological properties are platen pressure, friction and Poisson's ratio, the values of which are specific for the material to be baled.

Forest Concepts Granted 2 Core U.S. Patents for Biomass Baling Systems

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Today Forest Concepts received notice from the U.S. Patent Office of the issuance of the following patents:

o U.S. Patent No. 7,987,776, issue date August 2, 2011, entitled ENGINEERED WOODY BIOMASS BALING SYSTEM

o U.S. Patent No. 7,987,777, issue date August 2, 2011, entitled ENGINEERED TALL GRASS BIOMASS BALING SYSTEM

Baling of hay and other agricultural crops has been practice for more than one hundred years, but adapting existing agricultural balers to be successful with bioenergy feedstocks has proven problematic. Engineers at Forest Concepts applied sound science to discover and document three important rheological properties of woody biomass and tall grass biomass. Knowledge of these three properties enables the design and construction of new balers that can predictably and reproducibly bale both materials at preselected optimum transportation densities while minimizing fossil fuel consumption during baling, handling and transport. The three rheological properties are platen pressure, friction and Poisson's ratio, the values of which are specific for the material to be baled.

According to Dr. James H. Dooley, Chief Technology Officer and co-founder, "These three discoveries enable engineers to design and manufacture robust, lightweight rectangular balers for woody biomass and tall grass feedstocks. Balers using our inventions are likely to reduce the supply chain cost for delivery of feedstocks

on conventional semi-trailer trucks to bioenergy and biofuel plants."

"We have an aggressive IP strategy, and with the first two critical patents in place, the next step is to secure financing to begin building production balers or to license/sell the biomass baling technology to an established equipment manufacturer for commercialization," said Mike Perry, CEO.

Additional U.S. and international patent applications are pending.

Forest Concepts and University of Washington Partner on Bioenergy Technology

2011.January

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Scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's biofuels and bioproducts laboratory in the School of Forest Resources are partnering, as a subcontract under Forest Concepts' Small Business Innovation Research contract with the U. S. Department of Energy, to evaluate the biochemical conversion efficiency of a new kind of woody biomass feedstock particle.

Forest Concepts and University of Washington Partner on Bioenergy Technology

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Scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's biofuels and bioproducts laboratory in the School of Forest Resources are partnering with Forest Concepts, LLC, a bioenergy feedstock technology developer in Auburn, Washington, to evaluate the biochemical conversion efficiency of a new kind of woody biomass feedstock particle. The $80,000 grant to the UW is a subcontract under Forest Concepts' Small Business Innovation Research contract with the U. S. Department of Energy.

Forest Concepts is optimizing the size and physical properties of woody biomass feedstocks to improve yields and reduce energy consumption for production of second-generation cellulosic biofuels. The UW laboratory has a world-class team of researchers working on the biochemical pathways to convert cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol and other liquid biofuels.

Feedstock handling and processing account for much of the energy consumed in biofuels facilities. For example, more than a thousand horsepower may be used just to grind biomass into the small particles needed for bioconversion. Using steam explosion to further open biomass materials can improve ethanol yield, but the technology is slow and both capital and energy intensive. Forest Concepts' innovative biomass particles can be produced using 2/3 less energy; they also have properties that will potentially reduce the time needed for steam explosion treatment and increase ethanol yields.

Renata Bura, assistant professor of natural products chemistry and Rick Gustafson, professor of bioresource science, will lead the project for the UW, using the laboratory's pretreatment, fermentation and analytical capabilities, including a newly installed "steam gun" for researching the steam explosion treatment process.

"The focus on creating renewable sources of energy continues to gain momentum at the UW," said Gustafson. "This innovative project is part of an expanding body of UW research in bioresource science and engineering. By using plant biomass that is either of low value for other products or that can be grown on marginal land with minimal energy inputs, our laboratory's goal is to produce biofuels and bioproducts that are both environmentally and economically sustainable.

"We are looking forward to working with the research team on this project," said James Dooley, Forest Concepts chief technology officer. "The UW lab is uniquely qualified to work with our engineers on biochemical conversion of woody materials to biofuels. We expect that the knowledge and data gained from our cooperative research will improve the net energy balance for second generation biofuels as well as reduce the capital for future facilities."

Mike Perry, CEO, adds, "During these difficult financial times for universities, Forest Concepts is pleased to support research in the School of Forest Resources at the UW."

US DOE Funds Biomass Particle Optimization and Production Research

2010.August

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The US DOE Small Business Innovation Research program awarded Forest Concepts with a two-year $1,000,000 Phase II contract to devlop new equipment systems for comminution and new feedstock particles that are optimized for preprocessing and conversion to second-generation biofuels.

US DOE Funds Biomass Particle Optimization and Production Research

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Forest Concepts, LLC announces their receipt of the formal notice of award from Walter M. Polansky, DOE SBIR/STTR Program Director, for Grant #10605905 supported by the Department of Energy Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and commencing in August 2010 for "Optimization and Low Energy Production of Woody Biomass Particles" (Phase II).

Forest Concepts is combining its deep understanding of structural biology and natural modes of failure in cellulosic materials with disciplined engineering to create fundamentally new equipment systems for comminution and new feedstock particles that are optimized for preprocessing and conversion to second-generation biofuels. An object of this project is to build upon our existing technical base to develop the engineering data and design specifications for large scale, low energy biomass size reduction equipment appropriate for use with wood waste, switchgrass, willow, and corn stover. Early experimental data suggest that we may be able to reduce the comminution energy by half compared to grinders, hammer mills, and knife mills while dramatically narrowing the particle size range.

According to Jim Dooley, founder of Forest Concepts and Chief Technology Officer, "This new class of biomass feedstock particles are flowable, have good uncompressed bulk density and high surface area to volume ratio. The equipment system that we are developing to produce these particles is not like anything being used on biomass feedstocks today, and therefore, will represent a paradigm shift when it is commercialized rather than an improvement on existing equipment. Thus, the principles will be difficult for the many existing manufacturers of grinders, shredders, and hammer mills to implement without access to our intellectual properties."

USDA Funds Sorting Wood from Wood

2009.August

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The USDA Small Business Innovation Research program awarded Forest Concepts with a two-year $350,000 Phase II contract to advance the development of their technologies for reprocessing hog fuel and other chipped woody biomass.

USDA Funds Sorting Wood from Wood

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The USDA Small Business Innovation Research program awarded Forest Concepts with a two-year $350,000 Phase II contract to advance the development of their technologies for reprocessing hog fuel and other chipped woody biomass to create clean streams of wood fiber and bark, while removing dirt, rock and other contaminants. The cost and yield of most cellulosic biofuels processes is dependent on the quality and uniformity of feedstocks. Clean wood fiber is the material of choice for most biochemical processes. Bark has higher energy content for thermal energy production, and reportedly produces higher yield in some gasification systems. The chip beneficiation process (a fancy term for sorting the wood from the wood) being developed by Forest Concepts can be optimized to produce precision feedstocks for bioconversion or thermochemical processing. The organic co-products can then be directed to other solid biofuels, soil amendments and other uses.

We are very pleased that USDA is backing this development program that will benefit just about everyone in the cellulosic bioenergy industry," said Forest Concepts' Chief Technology Officer Dr. Jim Dooley. "Regardless of which conversion technologies become the commercial winners in the future, they all are dependent upon clean, high yielding feedstocks. We believe that our technology will be key to ensuring cellulosic feedstock quality at the front end of biorefineries."

"This is our fourth Phase II SBIR contract from USDA, and the second to be directly related to bioenergy feedstock supply technologies," said Forest Concepts CEO Mike Perry. "Our research and engineering team applied their sound science and disciplined design approach to bring the past three projects to successful outcomes. This project has several significant technical challenges, all of which we fully expect to solve during the next two years."

Forest Concepts donates truckload of WoodStraw® mulch to Jesusita fire recovery

Forest Concepts and partner Mt. West Helicopters donated and delivered a full truckload of their innovative wood-strand erosion control material WoodStraw® to the county of Santa Barbara, CA for use in the Jesusita fire environmental recovery effort.

Forest Concepts donates truckload of WoodStraw® mulch to Jesusita fire recovery

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Today Forest Concepts along with Mt. West Helicopters delivered a donated full truckload of their innovative wood-strand erosion control material to Rick Tomassini, Superintendent for the County of Santa Barbara, for use by the homeowners in the areas burned by the recent Jesusita Fire.

Conventional straw mulches and erosion control materials do not work well on the steep slopes and windy ridges burned in the typical southern California wildfire. The big issue this early in the season is that erosion materials need to control blowing ash and dust from now until the rains come in November, and still work then to prevent mud flows into the city.

WoodStraw® wood-strand erosion control material was developed by Forest Concepts in cooperation with the US Forest Service and the US Department of Agriculture specifically for these extreme types of situations. Since the research and development was completed in 2005, more than 5,000 tons of WoodStraw® mulch has been used after wildfires across the West, including the Angora Fire in Lake Tahoe.

This innovative material looks like hay straw from a distance and is baled like hay for ease of handling. Woodstraw® ECM outperforms straw mulches for erosion control and lasts several years to support revegetation. Since it is made from wood, there are no risks for seeds of invasive weed species, and in baled form, the material is easy to deliver to the critical areas where it is needed and easy to spread by hand, blower or helicopter.

The WoodStraw® ECM bales being delivered to Santa Barbara will be used near the homes and in canyons that drain directly into Santa Barbara. Since the WoodStraw® mulch greatly reduces blowing dust and ash, it will likely be used above neighborhoods to improve air quality.

WoodStraw® mulch is made from recycled scrap veneer that is a byproduct from small veneer mills that supply plywood and engineered wood beam manufacturers. It is a bit ironic that some of the small diameter logs that are turned into WoodStraw® mulch may have been removed from Northwest forests to reduce the fire danger here.

Mike Perry, Forest Concepts CEO, explained their donation this way. "Santa Barbara is recovering from their third major wildfire in two years. We were not in a position to supply their needs in the previous two fires. This year we have WoodStraw® bales in stock and with our partner Mountain West Helicopters of Utah are pleased to make this donation to the people of Santa Barbara and wish them a fast and safe recovery."

Mt. West Helicopters invests in Forest Concepts

2009.January

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On January 9, 2009 Mt. West Helicopters of Alpine, Utah made a minority equity investment in Forest Concepts. Bryan Burr, president and owner of Mountain West Helicopters, stated, "Over the past two years, Forest Concepts' patented WoodStraw® Erosion Control Mulch (ECM) has become an important treatment applied for erosion prevention on critical and sensitive burned areas resulting from wildfires. Mike Perry, CEO of Forest Concepts, adds, "During 2008, Mountain West Helicopters was Forest Concepts' most significant purchaser of WoodStraw® ECM, and Bryan Burr's confidence and support has enabled our company to make improvements to our WoodStraw® ECM production process and capacity, and to build inventory."

Mt. West Helicopters invests in Forest Concepts

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Today Forest Concepts LLC announced a minority equity investment in the company by Mountain West Helicopters LLC, Alpine, Utah.

Bryan Burr, president and owner of Mountain West Helicopters, stated, "Over the past two years, ForestConcepts' patented WoodStraw Erosion Control Mulch (ECM) has become an important treatment applied for erosion prevention on critical and sensitive burned areas resulting from wildfires. In addition to being an effective erosion control, the additional unique benefits of being 100 percent weed-free, resistant to high winds, long-lasting, encouraging re-vegetation and easy application by our helicopters are making WoodStraw ECM the treatment of choice on critical areas following wildfires."

Mike Perry, CEO of Forest Concepts, adds, "Mountain West's input and collaboration on the physical aspects of the WoodStraw ECM bales and delivery systems - along with its ground and air operations - have produced superior results on USDA Forest Service post-wildfire treatment projects. These include the October, 2008, Draper Canyon treatment south of Salt Lake City, and the Porcupine Ranch treatment near Moab, Utah, where WoodStraw ECM was applied to slopes exceeding 60 percent and to a critical collector basin that feeds directly into Castle Valley, Utah, and the Colorado River.

"During 2008, Mountain West Helicopters was Forest Concepts' most significant purchaser of WoodStraw ECM, and Bryan Burr's confidence and support has enabled our company to make improvements to our WoodStraw ECM production process and capacity, and to build inventory."

In June, 2008, 730 tons of WoodStraw ECM was applied by Mountain West Helicopters to the severely burned ridges in the Sawtooth National Forest above Ketchum, Idaho, following the 2007 Castle Rock Wildland Fire.

MEDIA: DVDs with videos of Mountain West's ground crews staging and helicopters applying WoodStraw ECM near Sun Valley are available on request.

Since production of WoodStraw ECM began in June, 2006, more than 4,000 tons have been delivered to 21 national forests, 7 BLM districts, 7 surface/abandoned mine reclamation projects such as Crandall Canyon (Utah), DOTs, state and local agencies, and vineyards in Napa Valley.

Locally, WoodStraw ECM was selected and used as the mulch around the new City of Kent, Wash., Special Event Center.

WoodStraw ECM is available in regular bales of 50 lbs. and in large bales of 575 lbs. for easy application by hand, blower or helicopter.

Forest Concepts Celebrates 10th Aniversary

2008.December

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Founded on December 11, 1998, Forest Concepts, LLC of Auburn, Washington is celebrating ten years of making it easier for customers to complete environmental restoration, endangered species habitat and erosion control projects with natural wood products. Hundreds of customers across the United States rely on wood products from Forest Concepts. The company's flagship ELWd® habitat structures and WoodStraw® wood strand erosion control materials were developed using sound science and disciplined en

Forest Concepts Celebrates 10th Aniversary

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Founded on December 11, 1998, Forest Concepts, LLC of Auburn, Washington is celebrating ten years of making it easier for customers to complete environmental restoration, endangered species habitat and erosion control projects with natural wood products. Hundreds of customers across the United States rely on wood products from Forest Concepts. The company's flagship ELWd® habitat structures and WoodStraw® wood strand erosion control materials were developed using sound science and disciplined engineering to meet the critical requirements of natural resource agencies, water and air quality regulators, and to be easily applied by contractors and conservation crews.

As the markets for environmental protection and restoration products mature, Forest Concepts is increasingly focused on development of technologies core to production of second generation biofuels from woody biomass and forest residuals.

Established in December 1998 by co-founders Jim Dooley and Jocko Burks, Forest Concepts, LLC is a forest products company with a new way of thinking about the industry and markets for wood-based materials. Products and technologies we created during the past ten years enable renewal of forest communities through value-added utilization of small diameter materials and other woody biomass. We are a nationally recognized leader in the commercialization of new uses for smallwood and biomass that is available as a co-product of forest management and wildfire protection. We develop and manufacture specialized smallwood structures and related materials for the habitat enhancement, threatened and endangered species protection, erosion control, environmental restoration, green building, and landscape markets. We provide professional services to federal, state and local agencies for business planning, product development, and biomass utilization. For more information visit our corporate web site www.forestconcepts.com.

WoodStraw® specified at the new Kent Washington Event Center

2008.October

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WoodStraw® wood strand erosion control material was specified by the City of Kent, Washington for mulching natural areas adjacent to the new ShoWare Event Center. The WoodStraw® mulch was manufactured and supplied by Forest Concepts, LLC of Auburn, Washington. The baled wood strand material was delivered as-needed from the Forest Concepts warehouse which is only a few miles from the project. Over the course of construction, more than 2,500 bales of WoodStraw® mulch was spread by City of Kent crews.

WoodStraw® specified at the new Kent Washington Event Center

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WoodStraw® wood strand erosion control material was specified by the City of Kent, Washington for mulching natural areas adjacent to the new ShoWare Event Center. The WoodStraw® mulch was manufactured and supplied by Forest Concepts, LLC of Auburn, Washington. The baled wood strand material was delivered as-needed from the Forest Concepts warehouse which is only a few miles from the project. Over the course of construction, more than 2,500 bales of WoodStraw® mulch was spread by City of Kent crews.

Project manager Kelly Peterson specified WoodStraw® because it had been proven to work in other similar projects around the Puget Sound region. The fact that the wood strand material also provided an attractive mulch around plantings was a bonus. Other erosion control materials would have needed to be covered with bark or other landscape mulch.

Next time you visit the ShoWare Center to attend a hockey game or other event, take a walk along the trail to the west of the parking lots to see the natural area and assess for yourself the performance and look of WoodStraw® erosion control mulch.

Established in December 1998, Forest Concepts, LLC is a forest products company with a new way of thinking about the industry and markets for wood-based materials. Products and technologies created during the past ten years enable renewal of forest communities through value-added utilization of small diameter materials and other woody biomass. The Company is a nationally recognized leader in the commercialization of new uses for smallwood and biomass that are available as co-products of forest management and wildfire protection. The skilled engineers and technologist of Forest Concepts develop and manufacture specialized smallwood structures and related materials for the habitat enhancement, threatened and endangered species protection, erosion control, environmental restoration, green building, and landscape markets. Recent development projects are yielding new enabling technologies that reduce the cost and increase the availability of woody biomass for production of second generation biofuels. For more information visit our corporate web site www.forestconcepts.com.

BLM Boise releases 3 year revegetation report featuring WoodStraw®

2008.September

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The Boise office of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management has released its three-year performance monitoring report on erosion control and revegetation for the 2005 Snake One fire along the Snake River near Weiser, Idaho. This post-wildfire application was the first operational use of WoodStraw® wood strand erosion control material by the BLM anywhere in the United States. The WoodStraw® mulch was manufactured and supplied by Forest Concepts, LLC of Auburn, Washington.

BLM Boise releases 3 year revegetation report featuring WoodStraw®

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The Boise office of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management has released its three-year performance monitoring report on erosion control and revegetation for the 2005 Snake One fire along the Snake River near Weiser, Idaho. This post-wildfire application was the first operational use of WoodStraw® wood strand erosion control material by the BLM anywhere in the United States. The WoodStraw® mulch was manufactured and supplied by Forest Concepts, LLC of Auburn, Washington.

BLM Natural Resource Specialist Cindy Fritz was assigned the task of monitoring the comparative performance of the WoodStraw® wood strand material versus areas conventionally mulched with agricultural straw. With help from Forest Concepts' technical specialists, she evaluated the application rate and uniformity in the fall of 2005. Fritz revisited the site periodically for the next three years to evaluate the performance of the materials and rate of revegetation for both planted and natural species.

The 2008 third year "ESR Monitoring Report - Snake one (B19E)" assessment concludes as follows: "The new WoodStraw® product utilized at the request of NIFC [National Interagency Fire Center] personnel was found to be a superior product to the straw covering. The product dispersed more evenly in the area which resulted in a more uniform ground covering, it is weed free (cereal rye was found growing in the straw areas), and is a more porous product that allows moisture and sunlight to penetrate to the ground surface. We found that the aerially seeded perennial grasses and especially the big sagebrush did very well in these covered areas and that the cover and stability provided by the WoodStraw® may have improved the germination potential of the grass and sagebrush as germination rates overall in these areas were higher."

The BLM granted Forest Concepts permission to post the full report on our website www.woodstraw.com. Ms. Fritz reminds those scientists who might read the report that it is not a scientific study, but a compilation of observations and comments intended to guide resource managers facing similar situations in the future.

Forest Concepts' patented WoodStraw® erosion control mulch is recycled from waste veneer, primarily Douglas fir, and, developed in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service Research Lab in Moscow, ID, was designed to meet the extreme requirements of erosion control for wildland fire rehab, mine reclamation and road maintenance/obliteration. Since Forest Concepts began manufacturing WoodStraw® ECM in 2005, more than 4,000 tons have been delivered to 21 national forests and 7 BLM districts. In 2007 WoodStraw® ECM was used in California for erosion control following the Angora Fire (South Lake Tahoe), the Larson Fire (Bishop BLM) and the Buckweed Fire (Angeles NF), and in June 2008 our entire inventory of WoodStraw® was helimulched on the ridges with hydrophobic soils as a result of the 2007 Castle Rock Fire above Ketchum, Idaho. Recently WoodStraw® was used by CAL FIRE, the Forest Service and BLM near Mariposa, CA to rehab dozer lines following the Telegraph Fire. Many of these more recent projects are a result of the dissemination of early data from the Snake One and other first-year uses.

Forest Concepts wins Rain Bird Engineering Concepts of the Year Award

2008.August

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Forest Concepts, LLC, Auburn, Washington, was awarded the 2008 Rain Bird Engineering Concept of the Year for their innovative wood-strand erosion control material it sells under the WoodStraw® brand. Using laboratory research data and mathematical modeling, the company designed this innovative and effective long-strand material to significantly out-perform agricultural straw in terms of longer functional life, resistance to wind, inherently free of weed seeds, and interlocking ability to cling to steep slopes.

Forest Concepts wins Rain Bird Engineering Concepts of the Year Award

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The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers has named James H. Dooley, P.E., ASABE Fellow, recipient of the 2008 ASABE Rain Bird Engineering Concept of the Year Award. The award, endowed by Rain Bird International, honors an engineer or engineering team for a unique contribution to developing or advancing a new engineering concept. The award was presented July 2, at the 2008 ASABE Annual International Meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

Dooley, co-founder and chief technology officer of Forest Concepts LLC, Auburn, Washington, was honored for WoodStraw™ wood-strand erosion-control material.

Dooley was challenged by state and federal agencies to create a wood-based replacement for agricultural straw to control erosion associated with municipal watersheds, restoration of lands burned in wildfires, and road construction and removal. He organized a program of research to understand surface erosion in a way that enabled design of new erosion-control materials. From the research data, a millimeter-scaled surface water hydrology model was constructed that led to the general specifications for WoodStraw™, a material that significantly out-performs agricultural straw. In addition to controlling erosion, the material boasts a long functional life, resistance to winds, and interlocking strands to cling to steep slopes, and it is naturally weed free.

Forest Concepts specializes in product and business development to utilize small-diameter timber and woody biomass. Products designed and manufactured by Forest Concepts are intended to protect water quality, enhance fish and wildlife habitats, provide rustic landscapes and enable architects to soften the built world.

Prior to launching Forest Concepts, in 1995, Dooley held a number of engineering, technical management and business development positions with major corporations, including Weyerhaeuser and Amfac, during a 20-year career with multinational firms in the agriculture, horticulture, and forest industries.

A 36-year member of ASABE, Dooley is currently serving as president of the Society for 2007-2008. He has published more than 60 conference papers, journal manuscripts, and book chapters and is a frequent panelist and speaker on technological issues related to biomass feedstocks, natural resources, and biological systems. Dooley's other professional memberships and activities include the Soil and Water Conservation Society, Association of

Conservation Engineers, Council on Forest Engineering, International Erosion Control Association, Forest Products Society, and Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) where he served as president. Recently, Dooley was awarded IBE's highest honor, the Brahm and Sudah Verma Lifetime Visionary award. He was elected an ASABE Fellow in 1996.

The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers is an international educational and scientific organization dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to biological, agricultural, and food systems. Founded in 1907 and headquartered in St Joseph, Michigan, ASABE comprises nearly 10,000 members representing more than 100 countries. Further information on ASABE can be obtained by contacting the Society at (269) 429-0300 (phone) or (269) 429-3852 (fax); hq@asabe.org. Details can also be found at http://www.asabe.org.

Jim Dooley elected president of ASABE

2008.July

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On July 2, 2008 Dr. James H. (Jim) Dooley PhD, P.E. was installed as the president of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) for 2008-2009. ASABE is an international technical and scientific organization with more than 9,000 members in 104 countries who are dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to biological, food, and agricultural systems. ASABE members are actively engaged in solving critical global issues of our time including production of agricultural commodities to feed a hungry world, leading the conversion from fossil fuels to bioenergy, improving food and water quality, and protecting the environment. Jim Dooley is a co-founder of Forest Concepts and its Chief Technology Officer.

Jim Dooley elected president of ASABE

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Auburn, WA - May 1, 2007 - Dr. James H. (Jim) Dooley was elected by the members of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) to be the association's president for 2008-2009. ASABE is an international educational and scientific organization with more than 9,000 members dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to biological, food, and agricultural systems.

Dooley is nationally recognized for applying sound science and disciplined engineering design to problems in agriculture, forestry and the natural resources. Dr. Dooley is currently Chief Technology Officer and co-founder of Forest Concepts, LLC (www.forestconcepts.com). Forest Concepts specializes in development forest products and markets to better utilize small-diameter timber and to ensure a cost-effective supply of woody biomass to biorefinery, bioenergy and bioproducts firms. Forest Concepts' major products include

WoodStraw™ wood-strand erosion control material and the ELWd® line of wood structures for stream restoration and endangered species habitat improvement. Dr. Dooley holds engineering degrees from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, Univ. of California at Davis, and a PhD in forest resources/forest engineering from the University of Washington. He is a registered professional engineer in Washington and Hawaii, first achieving registration in 1976. Dooley has been awarded five United States Patents.

Dr. Dooley looks forward to his year as the president of the ASABE organization. "During 2007 ASABE is celebrating its 100th anniversary and the many achievements of members across the past century. ASABE enters its second century at an exciting time and with unbounded professional opportunity. We enter an era of global collaboration and mobility, transitions to biobased economies, increased protection of our limited natural resources, and pursuit of technologies appropriate to feed, clothe and shelter burgeoning populations. I am confident that current and future members of the agricultural and biological engineering professions are up to the challenges that lie ahead."

Dr. Dooley is a Fellow of ASABE, the Society for Engineering in Agricultural, Food, and Biological Systems. He served as the Year 2000 President of the Institute of Biological Engineering. Dooley is also a member of the Soil and Water Conservation Society, Forest Products Society and the Licensing Executive Society. ASABE is an international educational and scientific organization dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to biological, food, and agricultural systems. Founded in 1907 and headquartered in St Joseph, Michigan, ASABE comprises 9,000 members representing more than 100 countries. The Society is recognized internationally for its technical leadership in all areas of biological, food, and agricultural engineering: natural resources, food and bioprocesses, power systems and machinery, structures and environment, informationand electrical technology, energy, biological systems, nursery and greenhouse operations, aquaculture,forestry, and farm safety. ASABE is a world leader in the development of engineering standards for agriculture,

with more than 200 standards, engineering practices, and data documents in publication. ASABE's standardization process is open, voluntary, and accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and numerous ASABE documents are recognized as American National Standards.

Contact: Mike Perry, CEO Forest Concepts 253-333-9663 mperry@forestconcepts.com

USDA SBIR program funds biomass pre-processing development at Forest Concepts

On May 1, 2008, Forest Concepts launched a project to develop improved methods to supply woody biomass feedstocks to the bio-products and bioenergy industries. The core premise of the project is that commingled woody biomass chips and shreds contain significant amounts of bole and branch wood which have economic value. The objective of the SBIR project is to increase the utility of field-processed woody biomass material by separating valuable wood content from other materials. This is Forest Concepts' fourth USDA-SBIR contract related to forest products.

USDA SBIR program funds biomass pre-processing development at Forest Concepts

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Auburn, WA - Forest Concepts, LLC today launched a new $80,000 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I contract from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop improved methods to supply woody biomass feedstocks to the bio-products and bioenergy industries. This is Forest Concepts' fourth USDA-SBIR contract related to forest products.

The current paradigm for dealing with most forest residuals and woody biomass it to chip or grind it to reduce the cost of disposal in landfills or at compost producers. Chipped and shredded woody biomass is essentially worthless for wood products because it is a mixture of bark, leaves, wood, and debris. The core premise of the project is that commingled woody biomass chips and shreds contain significant amounts of bole and branch wood which have economic value. If a process was available to separate the clean wood fraction from the rest of the chips, then more fiber would become available to forest products firms that are supply-limited today.

The objective of the SBIR project is to increase the utility of field-processed woody biomass material by separating the wood content from other materials. If most of the wood content could be separated and cleaned, then more wood fiber would be available in the marketplace and processors would receive more revenue for their material. A premise of this project is that reprocessing this material "in town" can create new jobs, additional fiber for local markets, and economic activity in communities hard hit by the loss of traditional forest industry employers. Research and experiments will focus on a range of proprietary materials separation technologies. Process engineering will evaluate system flows, capital costs and operating costs. If the results of the Phase I research are positive, the Company may apply in 2009 for a $300,000 Phase II development and process validation grant.

Forest Concepts' three previous SBIR contracts have resulted in new products and markets for wood products. WoodStraw™ wood-strand erosion control material is widely used across the western United States for erosion control on highway projects, forest trails, mine site reclamation, and post-wildfire projects. Siskin Ridge™ roundwood products and materials improve the connection between urban consumers and rural communities. The latest SBIR funded project resulted in a method to bale brush and tree trimmings as an alternative to chipping by landscapers and arborists. Baled brush and trimmings enable low-cost delivery to cogeneration power plants and other biomass users.

Established in 1998, Forest Concepts, LLC is a forest products company with a new way of thinking about the industry and markets for wood-based materials. Products and technologies we created during the past ten years enable renewal of forest communities through value-added utilization of small diameter materials and other woody biomass. We are a nationally recognized leader in the commercialization of new uses for smallwood and biomass that is available as a co-product of forest management and wildfire protection. We develop and manufacture specialized smallwood structures and related materials for the habitat enhancement, threatened and endangered species protection, erosion control, environmental restoration, green building, and landscape markets. We provide professional services to federal, state and local agencies for business planning, product development, and biomass utilization. For more information visit our corporate web site www.forestconcepts.com.

BIOMASS magazine feature article: "Northwest ingenuity takes shape"

2008.April

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In a six-page story titled "Northwest Ingenuity Takes Shape," BIOMASS Magazine profiled Forest Concepts as a leading innovator in the bioenergy feedstocks arena. Bryan Sims, staff writer for the industry leading trade magazine, chose to focus on how our WoodMuncher™ technology was developed and is applicable to produce precision bioenergy feedstocks. Sims also commented on our development of biomass baling as an extension of our experience baling WoodStraw® erosion control materials.

BIOMASS magazine feature article: "Northwest ingenuity takes shape"

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In a six-page story titled "Northwest Ingenuity Takes Shape," BIOMASS Magazine profiled Forest Concepts as a leading innovator in the bioenergy feedstocks arena. Bryan Sims, staff writer for the industry leading trade magazine, chose to focus on how our WoodMuncher™ technology was developed and is applicable to produce precision bioenergy feedstocks. Sims also commented on our development of biomass baling as an extension of our experience baling WoodStraw® erosion control materials.

See downloadable file for full article

Jim Dooley awarded the Institue of Biological Engineering's highest honor

2007.March

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Dr. James H. Dooley, co-founder and Chief Technology Officer with Forest Concepts, LLC was presented with the Brahm and Sudha Verma Lifetime Visionary Award from the Institute of Biological Engineering at their 2007 annual meeting in St. Louis, MO. The award is the organization's highest honor, and recognizes individuals who have made significant contributions to the development of the biological engineering profession over many years. Dr. Dooley was the second person to receive the award during the past ten years.

Jim Dooley awarded the Institue of Biological Engineering's highest honor

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Brahm and Sudha Verma Lifetime Visionary Award is hereby granted to James H. Dooley from The Institute of Biological Engineering On behalf of all the members of IBE, the Executive Council awards the Brahm and Sudha Verma Lifetime Visionary Award to James H. Dooley.

Throughout his career in industry, he has been at the forefront of engineering science, design, and project implementation in the field of biological engineering. He has extended the principles of engineering design to accommodate the quantitative and holistic aspects of biological systems. His work has verified these principles across the full spectrum of scale from micropropagation to watershed and ecological systems engineering. He has made significant contributions to IBE as a Charter Member, through his service as President in 2000, and through his numerous public service activities to ensure the success of IBE and the biological engineering discipline.

WoodStraw® ECM recieved the 2006 AE50 award for innovative technology

2006.June

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ASABE's Resource magazine chose Forest Concepts' WoodStraw® innovative wood-strand erosion control material to receive one of their AE50 Award winners. The judges who chose the winners represent all facets of the agricultural, food, biological, and related systems engineering professions. The expert panel picked the best of products first introduced to the marketplace during 2005. These products are expected to save producers time, costs, and labor while improving user safety.

WoodStraw® ECM recieved the 2006 AE50 award for innovative technology

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FOR RELEASE JULY 10, 2006

Forest Concepts, LLC Wins an AE50 Award from ASABE

ST. JOSEPH, MICHIGAN - The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) selected Forest Concepts LLC's, WoodStraw™ wood-strand erosion control mulch as one of 53 award winning products in the 2006 AE50 competition.

Products winning AE50 awards represent the best and the brightest developed around the globe for the agricultural, food, and biological systems industries.

The innovations highlighted were selected from numerous entries in the competition sponsored by ASABE's Resource magazine. The judges who chose the winners represent all facets of the agricultural, food, biological, and related systems engineering professions. The expert panel picked the best of products first introduced to the marketplace during 2005. These products are expected to save producers time, costs, and labor while improving user safety.

Problem solving is a major goal in designs, whether one is developing a better way to spread manure, water a golf course, or monitor weather conditions. Environmental concerns must also be factored in while keeping production and operating costs low.

The annual AE50 program has been applauding engineering achievements for close to two decades. Past winners include companies of all sizes throughout the world.

From better tractors and implements to computer software and high-tech electronic measuring devices and sensors, the 2006 AE50 winners cover a wide gamut. The AE50 is the only awards program of its kind, applauding companies for developments in specific areas of agricultural, food, and biological systems.

Many of the new ideas are patented and their names trademarked. Some may become household words in the future. Others will be improved upon as technology advances.

The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers is an international educational and scientific organization dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to biological, agricultural, and food systems. Founded in 1907 and headquartered in St. Joseph, Michigan, ASABE comprises 9,000 members representing more than 100 countries. Further information on ASABE can be obtained by contacting ASABE at (269) 429-0300 (phone) or (269) 429-3852 (fax); hq@asabe.org. Details can also be found at http://www.asabe.org.

Smallwood Pallet Bunks recieve 2004 AE50 award for innovative technology

2004.June

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Multi-Modal Wood Bunks for Small Diameter Roundwood enable efficient transport of wood from forest thinning programs and labor-efficient handling of smallwood at community-based forest products firms. The all-steel bunks are designed to hold approximately one-half ton of roundwood. The bunks can be moved by pallet jack or forklift at a production facility. The design facilitates tipping by automated equipment to feed roundwood onto a log deck or into a processing line. The bunks also can be lifted from the top by a log loader for easy stacking, placing or loading in the forest. The bunks can be hauled on a self-loading flatbed trailer, conventional flatbed truck and small trailers. The bunks are designed to nest when empty so they may be efficiently stored or transported back to the forest from town.

Smallwood Pallet Bunks recieve 2004 AE50 award for innovative technology

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Bunks boost efficiency of wood handling and transport

Multi-Modal Wood Bunks for Small Diameter Roundwood enable efficient transport of wood from forest thinning programs and provides labor-efficient handling of smallwood at community-based forest product firms. The all-steel bunks are designed to hold approximately 1.5 cubic meters (1/2 ton) of roundwood. A pallet jack or forklift can move the bunks at a production facility. The design facilitates tipping by automated equipment to feed roundwood onto a log deck or into a processing line. The bunks also can be lifted from the top by a log loader for easy stacking, placing, or loading in the forest. The bunks can be hauled on a self-loading flatbed trailer, conventional flatbed truck, and small trailers. The bunks are designed to nest when empty so they may be efficiently stored or transported back to the forest from town.